Resurrection from the dead.
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2) Resurrection in the Old Testament
The doctrine of resurrection according to the writer to the Hebrews goes back to Abraham (who lived about 2000 BCE)
By faith Abraham, when he was tried, offered up Isaac: and he that had received the promises offered up his only begotten son, Of whom it was said, That in Isaac shall your seed be called: Accounting that God was able to raise him up, even from the dead; from where also he received him in a symbol. (Hebrews 11:17-19)
The ancient Hebrews believed there was no life in the grave,
Whatsoever your hand finds to do, do it with your might; for there is no work, nor device, nor knowledge, nor wisdom, in the grave, where you go. (Ecclesiastes 9:10)
I am counted with them that go down into the pit: I am as a man that has no strength: Free among the dead, like the slain that lie in the grave, whom you (God) remember no more: and they are cut off from your hand. (Psalm 88:4-5)
For in death there is no remembrance of thee: in the grave who shall give thee thanks? (Psalm 6:5)
However at some point in the future the dead soul would be redeemed
But God will redeem my soul from the power of the grave: for he shall receive me. Selah. (Psalm 49:15)
Job, in very ancient writing (possibly before 2000 BCE) expresses this idea of waiting in death until an appointed time,
O that you would hide me in the grave, that you would keep me secret, until your wrath be past, that you would appoint me a set time, and remember me! If a man die, shall he live again? all the days of my appointed time will I wait, till my change come. You shall call, and I will answer you: you will have a desire to the work of your hands. (Job 14:13-15).
Hannah the mother of Samuel (living before 1000 BCE) speaks of her God having power to raise people,
The LORD kills, and makes alive: he brings down to the grave, and brings up. (1Samuel 2:6)
Daniel the prophet (living in Babylon about 600-540 BCE) speaks of a specific time when 'One like God', as 'Michael' means, would come to power. At that time the earth would be facing an awful situation, and the 'One like God' would deliver Daniel's people, and many that are dead would at that time live forever.
And at that time shall Michael stand up, the great prince which stands for the children of thy people: and there shall be a time of trouble, such as never was since there was a nation even to that same time:
and at that time your people shall be delivered, every one that shall be found written in the book. And many of them that sleep in the dust of the earth shall awake, some to everlasting life, and some to shame and everlasting contempt. (Daniel 12:1-2)
This is similar to what Jesus says to his disciples (John 5:25-29). Jesus endorses Daniel's beleif.
Ezekiel (living about 590-560 BCE) speaks of Israel nationally in terms of a resurrection and describes the process.
Therefore prophesy and say unto them, Thus says the Lord GOD; “Behold, O my people, I will open your graves, and cause you to come up out of your graves, and bring you into the land of Israel. And ye shall know that I am the LORD, when I have opened your graves, O my people, and brought you up out of your graves, And shall put my spirit in you, and ye shall live, and I shall place you in your own land: then shall ye know that I the LORD have spoken it, and performed it.” (Ezekiel 37:12-14)
This shows that the ancient Israelites believed that the body was dead, without life, spirit and thought in the grave, and that Yahweh had the power to make them come bodily out of the grave and live, by giving them again spirit to live.